Summary

This page describes the symbols used in this website.

One of the commonest problems in statistics is the analysis of a two-by-two table, i.e. a table of the form:

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B | not-B | Total | |

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A | a | b | m |

not-A | c | d | n |

Total | r | s | N |

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The results of observational and interventional studies are often summarised in this way, with one binary variable represented by the two rows and the other by the two columns. For example, Yates (1934) discussed data on malocclusion of teeth in infants:

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Normal teeth | Malocclusion | Total | |

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Breast-fed | 4 | 16 | 20 |

Bottle-fed | 1 | 21 | 22 |

Total | 5 | 37 | 42 |

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