**Recommendations**

The best policy in the analysis of two-by-two tables is:

(1) Where all expected numbers are at least 1, analyse by the 'These recommendations apply to data from either comparative trials or cross-sectional studies, and update those of Cochran (1952, 1954).N- 1' chi-squared test (the K. Pearson chi-squared test but withNreplaced byN- 1).

(2) Otherwise, analyse by the Fisher-Irwin test, with two-sided tests carried out by Irwin's rule (taking tables from either tail as likely, or less, as that observed).

This website contains an

**online calculator**for the '

*N*- 1' chi-squared test, i.e. the test recommended for most sets of data.

The above recommendations are based on extensive computer simulations and theoretical arguments, which are explained on this website. A summary of the research has been published by

*Statistics in Medicine*(see below).

**Article in ***Statistics in Medicine*

*Statistics in Medicine*

A summary of the research work has been published in

*Statistics in Medicine*:

Campbell Ian, 2007, Chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests of two-by-two tables with small sample recommendations,and is available on the Wiley website, from:Statistics in Medicine,26, 3661 - 3675

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114125487/ABSTRACT

or by email from the author.

**Manuscript available for download**

Alternatively, you can download the accepted 'preprint' .pdf file from the following: campbell_twobytwo_preprint.pdf .

This is a preprint of an article published in

*Statistics in Medicine*: Campbell Ian, 2007, Chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests of two-by-two tables with small sample recommendations,

**26**, 3661 - 75. Copyright © (2007) which is available on the Wiley website (see http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114125487/ABSTRACT.

**Subsidiary material**

**Introduction**

• Why use

*N*-1 rather than

*N*in a chi squared test or comparison of proportions: the theoretical basis

**Results**

• Why do the charts of maximum Type I error have a sawtooth appearance

**Software used**

The software used in the research is being made freely available. To download and install it:

1. Download by clicking: twobytwotables.zip .

2. Save it to your hard disk, and double-click it to unzip it.

3. Run Setup.exe, which will install TwoByTwoTables.exe.

This has three features:

1. Analysis of a particular 2 x 2 table by chi squared test or Fisher-Irwin test as appropriate (automatically decided).

2. Comparison of actual with nominal Type I error for a particular sample size and particular population proportion(s)

3. Comparison of maximum actual Type I error with nominal (or calculation of Type I error excess) for a particular sample size over all population proportions.

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